The origin of the Bolognese is confused with that of the Maltese, because their distant ancestors are the same little dogs mentioned in Latin by Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) under the denomination of canes melitenses. Bolognese, already known in the Roman era appears most especially among the very appreciated gifts, which were made during a whole era by the people of power of that world. Cosimo de Medici (1389–1464) brought no less than eight to Brussels as gifts to as many Belgian noblemen. Philipe II, king of Spain 1556–1598, after having received two as a gift from the Duke d’Este, thanked him in writing saying, ”These little dogs are the most royal gifts one can give to an emperor”. Bolognese are represented in paintings by Titian, Pierre Breughel called le Vieux and Goya.